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The name was coined by Anklesaria as a play on several meanings of the word "gopher". The World Wide Web was in its infancy in , and Gopher services quickly became established.
By the late s, Gopher had ceased expanding. Several factors contributed to Gopher's stagnation:. Gopher remains in active use by its enthusiasts, and there have been attempts to revive Gopher on modern platforms and mobile devices.
One attempt is The Overbite Project,  which hosts various browser extensions and modern clients. The conceptualization of knowledge in "Gopher space" or a "cloud" as specific information in a particular file, and the prominence of the FTP, influenced the technology and the resulting functionality of Gopher.
Gopher is designed to function and to appear much like a mountable read-only global network file system and software, such as gopherfs , is available that can actually mount a Gopher server as a FUSE resource.
A Gopher system consists of a series of hierarchical hyperlinkable menus. The choice of menu items and titles is controlled by the administrator of the server.
Similar to a file on a Web server, a file on a Gopher server can be linked to as a menu item from any other Gopher server. Many servers take advantage of this inter-server linking to provide a directory of other servers that the user can access.
The Gopher protocol was first described in RFC The protocol is simple to negotiate, making it possible to browse without using a client.
A standard gopher session may therefore appear as follows:. Here, the client has established a TCP connection with the server on port 70, the standard gopher port.
This is the selector, which identifies the document to be retrieved. If the item selector were an empty line, the default directory would be selected.
The server then replies with the requested item and closes the connection. According to the protocol, before the connection is closed, the server should send a full-stop i.
However, as is the case here, not all servers conform to this part of the protocol and the server may close the connection without returning the final full-stop.
In this example, the item sent back is a gopher menu, a directory consisting of a sequence of lines each of which describes an item that can be retrieved.
Most clients will display these as hypertext links, and so allow the user to navigate through gopherspace by following the links. The item type and display string are joined without a space; the other fields are separated by the tab character.
Because of the simplicity of the Gopher protocol, tools such as netcat make it possible to download Gopher content easily from the command line:.
The protocol is also supported by cURL as of 7. The selector string in the request can optionally be followed by a tab character and a search string.
This is used by item type 7. Gopher menu items are defined by lines of tab-separated values in a text file. This file is sometimes called a gophermap.
As the source code to a gopher menu, a gophermap is roughly analogous to an HTML file for a web page. Each tab-separated line called a selector line gives the client software a description of the menu item: what it is, what it's called, and where it leads.
The client displays the menu items in the order that they appear in the gophermap. The first character in a selector line indicates the item type , which tells the client what kind of file or protocol the menu item points to.
This helps the client decide what to do with it. Gopher's item types are a more basic precursor to the media type system used by the Web and email attachments.
The item type is followed by the user display string a description or label that represents the item in the menu ; the selector a path or other string for the resource on the server ; the hostname the domain name or IP address of the server , and the network port.
The item type of 1 indicates that the resource is a Gopher menu. The string "Floodgap Home" is what the user sees in the menu. In a Gopher menu's source code, a one-character code indicates what kind of content the client should expect.
This code may either be a digit or a letter of the alphabet; letters are case-sensitive. The technical specification for Gopher, RFC , defines 14 item types.
A one-character code indicates what kind of content the client should expect. Item type 3 is an error code for exception handling.
Browsers like Netscape Navigator and early versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer would prepend the item type code to the selector as described in RFC , so that the type of the gopher item could be determined by the url itself.
Most gopher browsers still available, use these prefixes in their urls. John Goerzen created an addition  to the Gopher protocol, commonly referred to as " URL links", that allows links to any protocol that supports URLs.
The master Gopherspace search engine is Veronica. Veronica offers a keyword search of all the public Internet Gopher server menu titles.
A Veronica search produces a menu of Gopher items, each of which is a direct pointer to a Gopher data source. Individual Gopher servers may also use localized search engines specific to their content such as Jughead and Jugtail.
GopherVR is a 3D virtual reality variant of the original Gopher system. Browsers that do not natively support Gopher can still access servers using one of the available Gopher to HTTP gateways.
Gopher support was disabled in Internet Explorer versions 5. OverbiteFF always uses port For Chromium and Google Chrome , Burrow  is available.
For Konqueror , Kio gopher  is available. Some [ who? The early s saw a renewed interest in native Gopher clients for popular smartphones : Overbite, an open source client for Android 1.
Gopher Client was released in as a proprietary client for iPhone and iPad devices and is currently maintained. Gopher popularity was at its height at a time when there were still many equally competing computer architectures and operating systems.
Users of Web browsers that have incomplete or no support for Gopher can access content on Gopher servers via a server gateway or proxy server that converts Gopher menus into HTML ; known proxies are the Floodgap Public Gopher proxy and Gopher Proxy.
Because the protocol is trivial to implement in a basic fashion, there are many server packages still available, and some are still maintained. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Gopher protocol. The top level menu of a Gopher server. Selecting the "Fun and Games" menu item Internet portal.
Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 20 September McGinnis Electronic collection management.
The World Wide Web unleashed. Sams Publishing. Retrieved 27 July Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Media Mill.
Event occurs at Archived from the original on 20 July Archived from the original on 14 August Within any species, the males are larger than the females, and can be nearly double their weight.
Average lifespans are one to three years. Most gophers have brown fur that often closely matches the color of the soil in which they live.
Their most characteristic features are their large cheek pouches, from which the word "pocket" in their name derives.
These pouches are fur-lined, can be turned inside out, and extend from the side of the mouth well back onto the shoulders. Gophers have small eyes and a short, hairy tail, which they use to feel around tunnels when they walk backwards.
Pocket gophers have often been found to carry external parasites. All pocket gophers create a network of tunnel systems that provide protection and a means of collecting food.
They are larder hoarders , and their cheek pouches are used for transporting food back to their burrows. Gophers can collect large hoards.
Unlike ground squirrels , gophers do not live in large communities and seldom find themselves above ground.
Tunnel entrances can be identified by small piles of loose soil covering the opening. Gophers often visit vegetable gardens, lawns, or farms, as they like moist soil see Soil biomantle.
This has led to their frequent treatment as pests. Gophers eat plant roots, shrubs, and other vegetables such as carrots, lettuce, radishes, and any other vegetables with juice.
The resulting destruction of plant life then leaves the area a stretch of denuded soil. At the same time, the soil disturbance created by turning it over can lead to the early establishment of ecological succession in communities of r-selected and other ruderal plant species.
The stashing and subsequent decomposition of plant material in the gophers' larder can produce deep fertilization of the soil.
Pocket gophers are solitary outside of the breeding season , aggressively maintaining territories that vary in size depending on the resources available.
Males and females may share some burrows and nesting chambers if their territories border each other, but in general, each pocket gopher inhabits its own individual tunnel system.
Although they attempt to flee when threatened, they may attack other animals, including cats and humans, and can inflict serious bites with their long, sharp teeth.
Depending on the species and local conditions, pocket gophers may have a specific annual breeding season, or may breed repeatedly through the year.
Each litter typically consists of two to five young, although this may be much higher in some species.
The young are born blind and helpless, and are weaned around 40 days old. Geomys and Thomomys species are classed as "prohibited new organisms" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act , preventing them from being imported into the country.
Much debate exists among taxonomists about which races of pocket gophers should be recognized as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.
Some sources also list a genus Hypogeomys , with one species, but this genus name is normally used for the Malagasy giant rat , which belongs to the family Nesomyidae.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of burrowing rodents. This article is about the rodent. For other uses, see Gopher disambiguation.
Rafinesque , Mammals portal. Smith Journal of Mammalian Evolution. Retrieved Retrieved 16 January There are 35 species of gophers living in both North and Central America.
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